The group of breeds with short faces are technically known as Brachycephalic Breeds in veterinary speak. As clients they are Pugs, French Bulldogs, British Bulldogs, Cavaliers and Shih Tzus.
These dogs can suffer from breathing disorders that greatly reduce their quality of life. Sadly, us humans have come to find it normal and even endearing that these dogs make noises when breathing. Unfortunately for these loveable pets this noise is an indication these dogs are working very hard to suck air past soft tissue obstructions in their airways. Their breathing is under constant strain. Imagine when you have felt breathing congestion because of a chest infection. Now imagine living with this feeling. It is for this reason the team at Ark Vet want to educate owners as to when their pet's breathing is a problem and what steps can be taken to correct these problems.
What is BOAS (Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome)?
BOAS is a combination of upper airway problems seen in dogs that are bred to have short noses and high domed foreheads (e.g. Pugs, French Bulldogs, English Bulldogs). This breeding causes an excess of soft tissues in the upper airways that obstructs airflow and forces the animal to rely on open mouth breathing.
What are the structures affected?
The opening of the nostrils may be narrow or completely closed. The soft palate (at the back of the mouth) may be overlong and get dragged into the larynx (voice box) when the dog breathes in. Sometimes the tonsils are very large and inflamed and protrude into the back of the mouth.
All these breeds have noisy breathing - what are the symptoms?
Dogs affected with BOAS may have one or all these structures affected, and this causes obstruction to airflow through the upper airway. This means that the dog may snore very loudly when asleep, or even snore when awake and at rest. When they exercise, they must pant continuously and have difficulty exercising when the weather is warm. They often pant for a long time after exercise has finished as they cannot easily cool down or cope with their oxygen requirements. Some dogs collapse when they exercise or get excited and may become so hypoxic (seen when the tongue turns a blue/purple colour) that they lose consciousness or even die. As dogs must pant to lose heat, these dogs are also more prone to heat stroke which can also cause loss of consciousness or death.
What can I as an owner do to help?
- Maintain your dog at a healthy weight
- Limiting stressful situations and exercise in hot or humid weather
- Find alternatives to a neck collar, such as a harness
When do I need to seek the Vet's help?
If your dog gets an obvious increase in breathing noise doing simple activity like the following, then you need to talk to your vet about getting an assessment for corrective airway surgery:
- A short 5-minute walk
- A quick run around the garden
- Running up the stairs
- Excitement with visitors
- A short car trip
- A short play with another dog
What surgery is recommended?
We usually recommend anaesthesia to evaluate the back of the throat first. We will also look at the larynx to see if there is any evidence of laryngeal collapse. We then do surgery to widen the nostrils and to shorten the soft palate to an anatomically correct position. Sometimes we remove the tonsils. The evaluation and the correction can all be carried out at the same time under the same anaesthetic.
What is the recovery time?
Dogs usually recover very quickly from this surgery and are discharged the same day with some pain relief, anti-inflammatory medication, and antibiotics. They should be rested for 7 days post-operatively but thereafter can be treated normally.
Are there any other problems that are associated with BOAS?
Many dogs affected with BOAS will have difficulties eating or swallowing as they struggle to breathe while eating or drinking. However about 30% of these dogs also tend to regurgitate saliva or food. Most of the dogs will improve after surgery, but often they will require antacid medication.
If you think your dog would benefit from airway surgery, speak to one of our vets today who can assess the history and clinical signs and provide you with advice.